Colitis Thrombophlebitis <

Colitis Thrombophlebitis

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Body Swelling Overview Colitis Thrombophlebitis

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Swelling is an increase in the size or a change in the shape of an area of the body. Swelling can be caused by collection of body fluid, tissue growth, or abnormal.

May 15, Author: See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor disease.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm or neck external jugular vein when intravenous IV catheters are used.

See Etiology, Presentation, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, and Workup, Colitis Thrombophlebitis. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks. However, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, although it is usually a benign, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, self-limiting disease, it Colitis Thrombophlebitis be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, at times causing significant incapacitation.

See Epidemiology and Erröteter Fuß von Krampfadern. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system.

Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeColitis Thrombophlebitis, as well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in the lower extremities in the great saphenous vein, Colitis Thrombophlebitis as a complication of medical or surgical interventions.

Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or inflammationColitis Thrombophlebitis, stasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability.

In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, usually accompanied by swelling. Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma.

Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, ruling out DVT Colitis Thrombophlebitis the Colitis Thrombophlebitis setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition. See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins.

See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis. Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis.

Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this Colitis Thrombophlebitis balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi. Colitis Thrombophlebitis the absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor Colitis Thrombophlebitis coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation.

The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site. Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin. A more detailed Colitis Thrombophlebitis of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below, Colitis Thrombophlebitis.

Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, including aspirin.

This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, Colitis Thrombophlebitis seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation.

The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, DVT, and PE. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy. Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans. The increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through most of pregnancy and for approximately 6 weeks after delivery.

This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity, Colitis Thrombophlebitis. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy.

High-dose estrogen therapy is another risk factor. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis Colitis Thrombophlebitis a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low.

Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower risk of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified. Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting Colitis Thrombophlebitis a tender cord along the course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma. Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.

Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site of an IV infusion and is the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This is by far the most common type of Colitis Thrombophlebitis encountered. Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.

It may take months to completely resolve. The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins, Colitis Thrombophlebitis.

Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins. It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the main saphenous Colitis Thrombophlebitis. Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause. Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema.

At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall, Colitis Thrombophlebitis. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers.

Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system, Colitis Thrombophlebitis. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

It also frequently is associated with septicemia. InDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, trauma, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, or exposure to radiation therapy, Colitis Thrombophlebitis.

Altemeier et al suggested that the presence of L-forms and other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic role in the disease and recommended Colitis Thrombophlebitis of tetracycline. Jadioux described migratory thrombophlebitis indetermining it to be an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity.

Although numerous etiologic factors have been proposed for this condition, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, none have been confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas.

Mondor disease is a rare condition, Colitis Thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward Colitis Thrombophlebitis costal margin and the epigastrium. A characteristic finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm.

The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated, Colitis Thrombophlebitis.

Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with protein C deficiency. Thrombophlebitis of the Colitis Thrombophlebitis vein of the penis, generally caused by trauma or repetitive injury, is also referred to as Mondor disease.

In the author's experience, superficial thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the age group ranging from young adulthood to middle age. However, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, Colitis Thrombophlebitis, though fewer complications occur in this age group. As previously mentioned, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen therapy are recognized risk factors for phlebitis. However, there are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease.

The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, although it can occur, particularly if the process extends into a deep vein.

However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT. In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis, Colitis Thrombophlebitis.

The patient should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If it occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed, Colitis Thrombophlebitis.

Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable.

The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient Colitis Thrombophlebitis to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended. An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh.

Colitis Thrombophlebitis veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Colitis Thrombophlebitis Pract Res Clin Rheumatol.

Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Emerg Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis.

Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:


Thromboembolic Disease: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

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